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Politics of Haiti

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Template:Politics of Haiti Haiti is officially a presidential republic, although it is often claimed to be authoritarian in practice. The current constitution is modeled after those of the United States and of France. It was approved in March 1987, but it was completely suspended from June 1988 to March 1989 and was only fully reinstated in October 1994. On February 29, 2004, a rebellion culminated in the alleged resignation and flight of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide and it is unknown if the current political structure will continue.

Suffrage is universal, for adults over 18.

GovernmentEdit

The constitution distributes power between an executive, a legislative and a judicial branch.

Executive branchEdit

The president is the head of state and elected by popular vote every 5 years. He is assisted by his cabinet which needs to be approved by the National Assembly. Jean-Bertrand Aristide had been in office since February 7, 2001, having received 92% of votes in the still disputed elections of 2000, but resigned the presidency on February 29, 2004 under pressure from rebels as well as from the United States and France. The current interim president is Boniface Alexandre (see also: 2004 Haiti Rebellion, List of Presidents of Haiti)

The prime minister, the head of government, is appointed by the president and ratified by the National Assembly. Yvon Neptune was appointed Prime Minister on March 4, 2002, but following the overthrow of the government in February 2004, he agreed to step down, and in March was replaced by an interim Prime Minister, Gérard Latortue, who was selected by a seven-person Conseil des Sages. Yvon Neptune was subsequently arrested, and is still held in prison on charges relating to an alleged massacre in the town of St Marc.

Legislative branchEdit

The bicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) consists of the Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés) and the Senate (Sénat).

The Chamber of Deputies has 83 members which are elected for four-year terms. The last elections took place in May 2000, with runoffs in July boycotted by the opposition. Candidates from Aristide's Lavalas Family Party held 73 of these 83 seats. New elections should have been held in 2004 but did not take place. Following the overthrow of the government in February 2004, the Chamber of Deputies remained empty. New elections are due in late 2005.

The Senate consists of 27 seats, one third elected every two years. In the disputed elections of 2000, 26 seats were attributed to Aristide's Lavalas Family Party. Since the overthrow of the government in February 2004, the Senate is not sitting. The remaining Senators are not recognised by the interim government. New elections are due in late 2005.

Judicial branchEdit

The legal system is based on the Roman civil law system. Haiti accepts compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

There is a Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation), assisted by local and civil courts at a communal level.

Miscellaneous factsEdit

Country nameEdit

  • conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
  • conventional short form: Haiti
  • local long form: Republique d'Haïti (French), Repiblik d Ayti (Creole)
  • local short form: Haïti (French), Ayiti (Creole)

Administrative divisionsEdit

Nine départments: Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Political parties and leadersEdit

Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti or ALAH [Reynold GEORGES]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [ Leslie MANIGAT ]; Convergence (opposition coalition composed of ESPACE, OPL, and MOCHRENA) [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES, Evans PAUL, Luc MESADIEU, Victor BENOIT]; Democratic Consultation Group coalition or ESPACE [Evans PAUL, Victor BENOIT] composed of the following parties: National Congress of Democratic Movements or KONAKOM, National Progressive Revolutionary Party or PANPRA, Generation 2004, and Haiti Can; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Marie-France CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic Party or PADEM [Clark PARENT]; Lavalas Family or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert DE RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Rene THEODORE]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; Movement for the Organization of the Country or MOP [Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE]; National Cooperative Action Movement or MKN [Volrick Remy JOSEPH]; National Front for Change and Democracy or FNCD [Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate or PLB [Renaud BERNARDIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES]

Political pressure groups and leadersEdit

Autonomous Haitian Workers or CATH; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participationEdit

ACCT, ACP, Caricom (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

See alsoEdit

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